Note from Dr. Katz: The scientific studies which follow will help explain why TheraBreath PLUS Oral Rinse, in addition to a higher concentration of OXYD-8, also contains zinc gluconate. Briefly, science has shown that adding zinc gluconate helps to eliminate sour/bitter/metallic tastes and also aids in reducing tartar buildup. The stabilized chlorine dioxide component (OXYD-8) in TheraBreath PLUS Oral Rinse is utilized to eliminate oral malodor, while tea tree oil assists as a natural anti-microbial.
Zinc deficiency and taste dysfunction; contribution of carbonic anhydrase, a zinc-metalloenzyme, to normal taste sensation.
by Komai M, Goto T, Suzuki H, Takeda T, Furukawa Y.
Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
The present study was designed to clarify the effect of zinc deficiency on sodium chloride preference, the lingual trigeminal and taste nerves transduction, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity of the tongue surface and salivary gland. Male SD rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into four groups, and fed zinc-deficient (Zn-Def), low-zinc (Low-Zn), and zinc-sufficient diets with free access (Zn-Suf) and pair-feeding (Pair-fed). After taking part in the preference tests for 42 days, the rats were provided for the chorda tympani and lingual trigeminal nerves recordings, then finally sacrificed and the tongue and submandibular gland excised to measure CA activity. Sodium chloride preference increased only after 4 days of the feeding of zinc-deficient and low-zinc diets, which means that the taste abnormality appears abruptly in zinc deficieny and even though in marginal zinc deficiency. Reduced CA activities of the taste-related tissues in zinc-deficient group paralleled well with the decreased taste and lingual trigeminal nerves sensitivities.
Effect of Different Mouthrinses on Morning Breath.
by van Steenberghe D, Avontroodt P, Peeters W, Pauwels M, Coucke W, Lijnen A, Quirynen M.
Department of Periodontology, Oral Pathology and Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.
BACKGROUND: Morning breath odor is an often-encountered complaint. This double-blind, crossover, randomized study aimed to examine the bad breath-inhibiting effect of 3 commercially available mouthrinses on morning halitosis during an experimental period of 12 days without mechanical plaque control.
METHODS: Twelve medical students with a healthy periodontium refrained from all means of mechanical plaque control during 3 experimental periods of 12 days (with intervening washout periods of at least 3 weeks). A professional oral cleaning preceded each period. During each experimental period, as the only oral hygiene measure allowed, the students rinsed twice a day with one of the following formulations in a randomized order: CHX-Alc (a 0.2% chlorhexidine [CHX] solution); CHX-NaF (CHX 0.12% plus sodium fluoride 0.05%); or CHX-CPC-Zn (CHX 0.05% plus cetylpyridinium chloride 0.05% plus zinc lactate 0.14%).
After 12 days, morning breath was scored via volatile sulfur compound (VSC) level measurements of the mouth air and organoleptic ratings of the mouth air, the expired air, and a scraping of the tongue coating. At the 12-day visit, a questionnaire (subjective ratings) was completed and samples taken from both the tongue coating and the saliva for anaerobic and aerobic culturing and vitality staining. The de novo supragingival plaque formation was also recorded. All parameters were correlated with the baseline registrations.
RESULTS: Although oral hygiene during the 3 experimental periods was limited to oral rinses, bad breath parameters systematically improved, with the exception of a slight increase in VSC levels while using CHX-Alc, a finding which was associated with the direct influence of the CHX on the sulfide monitor. The oral microbial load after the use of CHX-NaF remained unchanged, while for the CHX-Alc and CHX-CPC-Zn, significant reductions in both aerobic and anaerobic colony forming units (CFU)/ml were noticed in comparison with baseline data for both tongue coating and saliva samples. The composition of microflora, on the other hand, did not reveal significant changes. The supragingival plaque formation was inhibited, in descending order, by CHX-Alc, CHX-CPC-Zn, and CHX-NaF. The subjective scores for the rinses indicated a higher appreciation for CHX-CPC-Alc and CHX-NaF because of a better taste and fewer side effects. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that morning halitosis can be successfully reduced via daily use of mouthrinses. CHX-Alc and CHX-CPC-Zn mouthrinses result in a significant reduction of the microbial load of tongue and saliva.
· Clinical Trial
· Randomized Controlled Trial
PMID: 11577950 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
J Clin Periodontol 1996 May;23(5):465-70
The effect of mouthrinses containing zinc and triclosan on plaque accumulation, development of gingivitis and formation of calculus in a 28-week clinical test.
by Schaeken MJ, Van der Hoeven JS, Saxton CA, Cummins D.
Department of Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, University of Nijmegan, The Netherlands.
Experimental mouthrinses containing 0.4% zinc sulphate and 0.15% triclosan, which differed in base formulations were compared to a commercially available non-active control mouthrinse. Following baseline clinical examinations for plaque, gingival bleeding and calculus, the volunteers were provided with a dental prophylaxis and given oral hygiene instruction, stratified into 3 groups and given 1 of 3 mouthrinses.
Further clinical assessments were performed after 4, 16 and 28 weeks. Salivary mutans streptococci were also monitored during the study. At 4 weeks, plaque and calculus scores in all groups were low compared to baseline. During the remainder of the study, these improvements were not maintained and both plaque and calculus levels increased in all groups. Plaque was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in the control at all time points. Calculus was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in the control at all time points. Calculus was significantly lower at week 28 for experimental mouthrinse group 2. Gingival bleeding also decreased in the initial 4 weeks but increased thereafter in the control group. In contrast, gingival bleeding was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the two experimental groups than in the control group. No significant changes in mutans streptococci were observed.
Ann Pharmacother 1996 Feb;30(2):186-7
Zinc Deficiency and Taste Disorders.
by Heyneman CA.
Idaho Drug Information Center, Idaho State University, Pocatello 83209, USA.
Elemental zinc supplementation in daily dosages of 25-100 mg po appears to be an efficacious treatment for taste dysfunction secondary to zinc depletion. Insufficient evidence is available to determine the efficacy of zinc supplementation for the treatment of hypogeusia or dysgeusia secondary to drug therapy or medical conditions that do not involve low serum zinc concentrations.
Ther Umsch 1995 Nov;52(11):732-7
[Article in German] Huttenbrink KB.
Klinik und Poliklinik fur Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde der Medizinischen Fakultat Carl Gustav Carus, Technischen Universitat Dresden.
Disorders of olfaction and taste are infrequent, but a complete loss of smell or taste reduces the quality of life significantly. The sensitivity of human olfaction is remarkable, even for specific stimuli: Just a few molecules are enough to induce the correct identification of sterilised and ultraheated milk.
Olfaction and taste are called ‘chemical senses’ because in both cases the adequate stimulus consists of molecules that bind to receptors of the sensory cells. The perceptions of smell and taste are often combined. Taste differentiates only four qualities: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. The typical flavor of food or drink is detected by olfaction. Disturbances of olfaction can be due to respiratory disorders such as nasal polyps, a deviation of the nasal septum or chronic sinusitis. Such conditions can reduce airflow through the olfactory cleft at the roof of the nasal cavity. They can be corrected by modern endoscopic surgery of the nose.
Epithelial disorders involving the sensory cells are most often caused by viral infections (influenza-anosmia) or toxic destruction of the sensory epithelium (solvents or gases). Epithelial disorders can be cured only rarely by any treatment. Corticosteroids, zinc, and vitamin A are tried frequently. Neural disorders occur after frontobasal trauma and during neurological diseases such as Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s disease. Disorders of olfaction can be an early sign of such neurological diseases and sophisticated examination of this sense can contribute to their early diagnosis. However, no specific treatments have yet been identified. Disorders of taste can be due to toxic, chemical or inflammatory damage to the sensory cells of the tongue.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1993 Oct;37(4):318-22
Zinc Taste Test in Pregnant Women and its Correlation with Serum Zinc Level.
by Garg HK, Singal KC, Arshad Z.
Department of Pharmacology, J. N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aligarh.
Pregnant women in different trimesters of pregnancy were divided into control (n = 58) and study (n = 104) groups. Study group subjects were given 45 mg zinc/p.o./day as 200 mg ‘zinc sulphate tablets from the day of reporting till term. Body zinc status was clinically assessed by ‘zinc taste test’. Blood samples were drawn at the same time and serum zinc levels measured. Zinc taste test scores decreased with advancement of pregnancy (P < 0.05) and increased significantly following zinc administration (P < 0.05).
Serum zinc level declined significantly with advancement of pregnancy (P < 0.001). Following zinc administration, serum zinc level increased significantly (P < 0.001). Accuracy of zinc taste test in individual cases ranged between 70 and 100 percent. On the whole, zinc taste test was well correlated with serum zinc level, and provides a fair idea of zinc deficiency.
Nutrition 1993 May-Jun;9(3):218-24
Zinc deficiency in elderly patients.
by AS, Fitzgerald JT, Hess JW, Kaplan J, Pelen F, Dardenne M. – Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI.
Zinc is needed for growth and development, DNA synthesis, neurosensory functions, and cell-mediated immunity. Although zinc intake is reduced in elderly people, its deficiency and effects on cell-mediated immunity of the elderly have not been established. Subjects enrolled in “A Model Health Promotion and Intervention Program for Urban Middle Aged and Elderly Americans” were assessed for nutrition and zinc status. One hundred eighty healthy subjects were randomly selected for the study. Their mean dietary zinc intake was 9.06 mg/day, whereas the recommended dietary allowance is 15 mg/day. Plasma zinc was normal, but zinc in granulocytes and lymphocytes were decreased compared with younger control subjects. Of 118 elderly subjects in whom zinc levels in both granulocytes and lymphocytes were available, 36 had deficient levels.
Plasma copper was increased, and interleukin 1 (IL-1) production was significantly decreased. Reduced response to the skin-test antigen panel and decreased taste acuity were observed. Thirteen elderly zinc-deficient subjects were supplemented with zinc, and various variables were assessed before and after zinc supplementation. Zinc supplementation corrected zinc deficiency and normalized plasma copper levels. Serum thymulin activity, IL-1 production, and lymphocyte ecto-5′-nucleotidase increased significantly after supplementation. Improvement in response to skin-test antigens and taste acuity was observed after zinc supplementation. A mild zinc deficiency appears to be a significant clinical problem in free-living elderly people.
Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1991 May;117(5):519-28
Smell and taste disorders, a study of 750 patients from the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center.
Deems DA, Doty RL, Settle RG, Moore-Gillon V, Shaman P, Mester AF, Kimmelman CP, Brightman VJ, Snow JB Jr. – Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Human Communication, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Smell and taste disorders are common in the general population, yet little is known about their nature or cause. This article describes a study of 750 patients with complaints of abnormal smell or taste perception from the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center, Philadelphia. Major findings suggest that: chemosensory dysfunction influences quality of life; complaints of taste loss usually reflect loss of smell function; upper respiratory infection, head trauma, and chronic nasal and paranasal sinus disease are the most common causes of the diminution of the sense of smell, with head trauma having the greatest loss; depression frequently accompanies chemosensory distortion; low body weight accompanies burning mouth syndrome; estrogens protect against loss of the sense of smell in postmenopausal women; zinc therapy may provide no benefit to patients with chemosensory dysfunction; and thyroid hormone function is associated with oral sensory distortion. The findings are discussed in relation to management of patients with chemosensory disturbances.
J Periodontol 1990 Jun;61(6):352-8
Clinical efficacy of a dentifrice and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract and zinc chloride during 6 months of use.
Harper DS, Mueller LJ, Fine JB, Gordon J, Laster LL. – Fairleigh-Dickinson University, Oral Health Research Center, Hackensack, NJ.
The efficacy of combined use of toothpaste and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract and zinc chloride was compared to placebo products in a 6-month clinical trial. Sixty subjects with moderate levels of plaque and gingivitis were randomly assigned to active and placebo groups. Noninvasive measures of plaque and gingivitis were assessed at baseline and at 2, 6, 8, 14, 20, and 28 weeks. Bleeding on probing was measured at baseline and 6, 14, and 28 weeks. Active group scores were significantly lower (P less than .0001) than placebo scores at each post-baseline time point for all indices, with the exception of plaque at 2 weeks. The 28 week active group scores were 21% lower than the placebo group for plaque, 25% lower for gingivitis, and 43% lower for bleeding on probing. No dental staining or taste alteration was reported in the active group. Three of 30 active group subjects exhibited minor soft tissue irritations that resolved spontaneously without discontinuation of product use. Results indicate that the test products showed good levels of safety and efficacy when administered in a combined use regimen for 6 months.
Clin Prev Dent 1990 Apr-May;12(1):13-7
Clinical evaluation of anticalculus dentifrices.
Kazmierczak M, Mather M, Ciancio S, Fischman S, Cancro L.
One hundred and eighty-seven patients participated in a six-month study to evaluate the calculus-inhibiting effect of a zinc citrate dentifrice compared to Crest Tartar Control and a placebo, Crest Regular. The findings demonstrate a statistically significant calculus prevention benefit over Crest Regular for both Crest Tartar Control and a 2% zinc citrate/silica product. Compared to the control, the zinc citrate product reduced calculus formation by 32.3%, and Crest Tartar Control reduced it by 21.4%. These findings also demonstrate no statistically significant difference in stain or soft tissue status among the three dentifrices. All products were found to be safe to oral tissues and acceptable for taste.
J La State Med Soc 1989 Sep;141(9):9-11
Disorders of taste.
Rareshide E, Amedee RG.
At least 2 million Americans suffer with chemosensory dysfunction or disorders of taste and smell. In addition to the obvious aesthetic deprivation, loss of taste may affect an individual’s health and psychosocial situation. Most taste disorders are associated with antecedent upper respiratory infection, trauma, or allergic rhinitis, or have an idiopathic etiology. They may reflect underlying neoplastic, neurologic, endocrine, infectious, or nutritional disturbances; only 1% of these patients have a functional disorder. Evaluation consists of a history and physical, followed by a screening test battery searching for any of the treatable etiologies. One third of patients will respond to exogenous zinc therapy after a treatment period of 2 to 4 months. The remainder must rely on supportive measures such as additives, flavor enhancers, and rinses.