Posts Tagged ‘bad breath tip’

12 Ways to Fight Bad Breath

Monday, October 22nd, 2007

Mary Rose Antonio writes about the basic solutions to bad breath and the many benefits of green tea. Two quick tips — use alcohol-free mouthwash and sugar-free gum. You’ll be well on your way to fresh breath.

Bad breath is truly embarrassing but you don’t have to live with it because there are ways to combat this problem. One great solution is to simply drink green tea everyday before, during, and after a meal. It inhibits the bacteria in your mouth and teeth and the health benefits of drinking green tea surpasses all kinds of mouthwash and breath mints.

Are you embarrassed of your bad breath? Is it annoying you and making you very self-conscious? I bet you can’t wait to get rid of it.

However, you are not alone when it comes to bad breath. 35 to 45 percent of the entire world’s population has chronic bad breath. So, what can you do to be rid of it? Here are 12 ways to fight bad breath:

1. More often than not, bad breath is a sign of gum disease. Get into the habit of practicing good dental hygiene. Brush your teeth well and don’t forget to floss. Also, visit your dentist to get rid of plaque buildup.

2. Don’t forget to clean your tongue as well. Get rid of that whitish coating. Pay more attention to the back of the tongue because that’s where the bacteria that cause bad breath usually reside. Some people have suggested using an inverted spoon to scrape the tongue. However, it is more effective to use a tongue scrapper.

3. Choose your breath mints or chewing gum wisely. Make sure they are sugar-free. Sugar feeds the bacteria that cause bad breath. So your breath may smell nice temporarily but the bad breath will return later and may smell even worse. Choose instead products that have xylitol. It’s a natural sweetener that helps to buffer acidity and reduce the build-up of plaque-causing bacteria. Therabreath gum is sugar-free and uses xylitol. This TheraBreath System includes 2 Bottles of Oral Rinse, 1 Tube of Toothpaste, The Bad Breath Bible, and 1 Tongue Cleaner

4. Prevent a dry mouth. Saliva is a great help in washing away food particles and bacteria. To keep your mouth moist, make sure you drink plenty of water. Minimize your intake of coffee, soft drinks and alcohol. Japanese scientists recommend green tea. They say it promotes healing of damaged gums as well as contains antioxidant polyphenols. Dry mouth is also a result of breathing through the mouth. This usually happens when you sleep.

5. Be careful of which mouthwash you use. Those with alcohol content will contribute to a dry mouth. Look instead for mouthwashes with chlorine dioxide. It will directly attack the volatile sulfur compounds responsible for bad breath. Use a mouthwash with green tea on it. Therabreath Oral Rinse is recommended; it does not contain alcohol.

6. It is no secret that garlic, onions and curry spices give you bad breath. However, the effect is only temporary, as eventually, your body will get rid of those foods. However, if you need a quick fix and brushing your teeth doesn’t get rid of the smell, you can try drinking lemonade or suck a lemon wedge sprinkled with salt.

7. Chlorophyll has been recognized as a powerful breath freshener. Get a healthy dose of chlorophyll by chewing on fresh parsley. You can also chew on spirulina tablets or drink chlorophyll rich drinks such as wheat-grass.

8. Herbal remedies include chewing on fennel or anise seeds. You can also make a tea from cloves and use it as a mouthwash. Cloves are said to have antiseptic properties.

9. Do you have milk intolerance? Eliminate dairy products from your diet and see if your bad breath goes away.

10. Restore and maintain your intestinal flora with probiotics. Also, improve the function of your large intestine by eating lots of fiber rich foods.

11. Check for an underlying medical condition such as tonsillitis, diabetes, intestinal disease, lung disease, liver disorder or chronic sinusitis.

12. Drink high quality green tea everyday. It has the ability to destroy and inhibit the growth of bacteria in your mouth and teeth.

(Edited by Abby Copuyoc)

No Comments Yet »

Tip of the week

Monday, October 8th, 2007

This week’s tip! Watch out for a fresh breath tip from Dr. Katz every week.

Don’t put off going to the dentist. Don’t wait until you feel pain before you go. It is good to have a check-up every six months.

 

No Comments Yet »

Why Your Oral Products (Mouthwash, Toothpaste, Chewing Gum, Spray, etc) May be GIVING you Bad Breath!

Monday, September 10th, 2007

In order to stop bad breath, you must stop the production of the volatile sulfur compounds. The only safe and clinically-proven way to do so is to “oxidize” away the sulfur compounds and the bacteria that create this problem.

For several decades the large pharmaceutical companies have made commercial products that do not oxidize away the Odorous and Lousy-Tasting Sulfur compounds created by anaerobic bacteria. Many attempt to “help” the public, but merely rely on “masking agents” which essentially cover-up the malodor and sour, bitter tastes produced by the sulfur compounds with other stronger tastes (some medicinal and minty) and fragrances.

Alcohol:

The end result was a “masking chemical” + high levels of alcohol. Alcohol makes your breath worse. Alcohol, in chemical terms, is classified as a DESICCANT, or DRYING AGENT. As you know from information in this website and possibly your own personal problem, the dryer your mouth gets – the worse your breath gets.

Here’s how much alcohol (in Percentage and Proof) is contained in the leading products below:

Product

% Alcohol

As Proof

Other “BAD” Ingredients

You may also ask yourself, “If those common products kill the germs that cause bad breath (like they say they do), then why do I still have bad breath?”

Ingredients in Oral Products

Here are some other “strange” ingredients added to mouthwash and other oral products!

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: Stop Your Washing Your Mouth With Soap!

Unfortunately, the public is unaware of the ingredients in products they use on a daily basis. For instance, nearly every toothpaste contains an ingredient that has been proven to dry out your mouth, and is now scientifically linked to canker sores. It’s called Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS), and is placed into toothpaste (and some mouthwashes) in order to create foaming! (Sodium Lauryl Sulfate is also the main ingredient in your shampoo – go check it out.) The harshness of this chemical has been proven to create microscopic damage to the oral tissue which lines the inside of your mouth, which then leads to Canker Sore production. The microscopic damage and “shedding” of vital oral tissues” provides a protein food source to the bacteria that create the volatile sulfur compounds of Halitosis and taste disorders. That’s why TheraBreath Oral Products have never contained Sodium Lauryl Sulfate!

SLS ( sodium lauryl sulfate ) acts just like a detergent. It is used in the laboratory as a membrane destabilizer and solubilizer of proteins and lipids. SLS is used in toothpaste to emulsify (mix) oil and water based ingredients together. In your toothpaste it creates the foam you get when brushing. Since it is classified as a soap, you will easily understand, why this ingredient can cause drying inside the mouth for many individuals. The dryness is one of several factors that will lead to bad breath.

Saccharin:

Would you give Saccharin to your children? Well, you are – when you provide them with Children’s toothpaste from some of the major companies – take a look at their ingredients.

The only toothpaste, formulated to fight bad breath by oxidation AND which does not contain Sodium Lauryl Sulfate & Saccharin is TheraBreath.

Sodium Chlorate:

This is a chemical that is NOT an oxygenating compound. It sounds like a chemical used in oxygenating products, but in order for it to even start to produce oxygenation, the pH of the solution would need to have a pH of -1 (that’s right -1!). Historically, scientific papers refer to many cases of accidental Sodium Chlorate Poisoning. Consequently, oral products containing chlorates were taken off the market in the UK over 60 years ago! (A bibliography of scientific papers on Sodium Chlorate).

Benzalkonium Chloride:

Benzalkonium Chloride had been used for many years as a preservative in eye drops and also in nasal sprays and drops. Recently, researchers in Europe discovered that this preservative was causing a great deal of allergic reaction among users. It is now estimated that fully 10% of the population is allergic to Benzalkonium Chloride.

Other studies have shown a direct relationship between BKC and contact dermatitis, another allergic reaction.

Based on these facts, pharmaceutical companies have started to produce eye and nasal drops WITHOUT BKC in order to provide better products to the public.

No Comments Yet »

Do You Have a White Tongue or Geographic Tongue? Discover How To Correctly Clean Your Tongue to Make White Tongue Disappear!

Monday, September 10th, 2007
A White Tongue is something that nobody wants to have – not only does a white tongue look abnormal, but left untreated, it’s a strong indication of a breath problem. People who have a condition known as geographic tongue are definitely more likely to experience a white tongue. Geographic Tongue simply means a tongue that has lots of grooves and fissures in it – these grooves and fissures make an excellent breeding ground for the anaerobic bacteria that cause bad breath and a white tongue. The way around this problem is simply making sure that your tongue is kept as clean as possible. But not all tongue cleaning is created equal….Tongue Cleaning (or Tongue Scraping) is a process that the majority of people in the United States don’t do on a daily basis. Yet it’s one of the most important steps you can take to keep your breath clean and fresh.It’s not difficult to do, and it’s not even that particularly time consuming. Yet that extra minute or two per day can reap huge rewards in preventing bad breath, and helping to prevent white tongue and return it to its normal color.A healthy tongue should be slightly moist, smooth, and slightly pinkish in color (see image below left).Under certain conditions, a geographic tongue can become coated, off-color (white, yellow, even black), and dry and cracked (see images below right).

HEALTHY TONGUE: UNHEALTHY, DRY, COATED TONGUES:
 
  Healthy Tongue   White Tongue   Geographic Tongue   Coated Tongue

Let me clarify a few things about tongue cleaning:

 
  1. It’s not necessary to scrape hard
    I’ve seen patients make their tongues bleed because they were pressing down so hard. In general, pressing harder does not remove more bacteria. You simply need to press hard enough so that the tongue cleaner contacts your tongue, flush across the cleaning surface. Try not to leave any gaps.
  2. Tongue Cleaning Alone Does Not Prevent Bad Breath
    Tongue Cleaning does not kill the bacteria that cause bad breath that are breeding below the surface of a geographic tongue. It simply removes the gunk on the surface of your tongue (mucus and food debris) which are a food source for those anaerobic bacteria. In order to get rid of those anaerobic bacteria (which are responsible for white tongue), you must use an oxygenating toothpaste which can penetrate beneath your tongues surface.
  3. It’s not necessary to use one of those complex, expensive gizmos to successfully clean your tongue
    Really, all your need is a fairly rigid instrument, that you can easily make flush with the largest amount possible of your tongues surface area. The electronic tongue cleaners you see can be helpful if you have arthritis, difficulty with coordination, or in general have a tough time performing the actions listed below.
  Recommended Tongue Cleaners:Triple Headed Plastic Tongue Cleaner

 

Step-By-Step Instructions to Successfully Clean A Geographic Tongue and Prevent White Tongue

 
Here is an average tongue cleaning from start to finish from one of my patients who volunteered to allow me to take his picture.

  1. Starting at the very base of your tongue, place the tongue cleaner flush against your tongues surface and make slow sweeping strokes from back-to-front. Start at either side (left or right) and work your way to the other. Depending on the tongue cleaner you are using, you might need to make 3-4 different ‘swaths’ across your tongue.
  2. Once the surface debris from your tongue has been removed, apply a small bead of TheraBreath Oxygenating Toothpaste to the head of your tongue cleaner
  3. Gently coat the suraface of your tongue (as far back as possible without gagging) with the toothpaste. This allows it to penetrate below the surface of your tongue to neutralize those sulfur-producing anaerobic bacteria! There are more bacteria in the rear of your tongue than in the front.
  4. Once your tongue is coated, allow the toothpaste to stay on the surface of your tongue as long as you can. Up to 90 seconds is ideal. If you begin to cough, or your gag reflex kicks in, that’s ok, just spit whenever you need to.
  5. Ideally, it’s best to leave the toothpaste on the surface of your tongue, while you brush your teeth normally.
  White TongueApply TheraBreath ToothpasteGently Scrape TongueHealthy Tongue
2 Comments »

Zinc in TheraBreath PLUS Mouthwash

Monday, September 10th, 2007

Zinc in TheraBreath PLUS Mouthwash

The scientific studies which follow will help explain why TheraBreath PLUS Oral Rinse, in addition to a higher concentration of OXYD-8, also contains Zinc Gluconate. Briefly, science has shown that adding zinc gluconate helps to eliminate sour/bitter/metallic tastes and also aids in reducing tartar buildup. The stabilized chlorine dioxide component (OXYD-8) in TheraBreath PLUS Oral Rinse is utilized to eliminate oral malodor, while Tea Tree Oil assists as a natural anti-microbial.


Biofactors 2000;12(1-4):65-70

Zinc deficiency and taste dysfunction; contribution of carbonic anhydrase, a zinc-metalloenzyme, to normal taste sensation.

by Komai M, Goto T, Suzuki H, Takeda T, Furukawa Y.

Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. mkomai@biochem.tohoku.ac.jp

The present study was designed to clarify the effect of zinc deficiency on sodium chloride preference, the lingual trigeminal and taste nerves transduction, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity of the tongue surface and salivary gland. Male SD rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into four groups, and fed zinc-deficient (Zn-Def), low-zinc (Low-Zn), and zinc-sufficient diets with free access (Zn-Suf) and pair-feeding (Pair-fed). After taking part in the preference tests for 42 days, the rats were provided for the chorda tympani and lingual trigeminal nerves recordings, then finally sacrificed and the tongue and submandibular gland excised to measure CA activity. Sodium chloride preference increased only after 4 days of the feeding of zinc-deficient and low-zinc diets, which means that the taste abnormality appears abruptly in zinc deficieny and even though in marginal zinc deficiency. Reduced CA activities of the taste-related tissues in zinc-deficient group paralleled well with the decreased taste and lingual trigeminal nerves sensitivities.


Effect of Different Mouthrinses on Morning Breath.

by van Steenberghe D, Avontroodt P, Peeters W, Pauwels M, Coucke W, Lijnen A, Quirynen M.

Department of Periodontology, Oral Pathology and Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.

BACKGROUND: Morning breath odor is an often-encountered complaint. This double-blind, crossover, randomized study aimed to examine the bad breath-inhibiting effect of 3 commercially available mouthrinses on morning halitosis during an experimental period of 12 days without mechanical plaque control.

METHODS: Twelve medical students with a healthy periodontium refrained from all means of mechanical plaque control during 3 experimental periods of 12 days (with intervening washout periods of at least 3 weeks). A professional oral cleaning preceded each period. During each experimental period, as the only oral hygiene measure allowed, the students rinsed twice a day with one of the following formulations in a randomized order: CHX-Alc (a 0.2% chlorhexidine [CHX] solution); CHX-NaF (CHX 0.12% plus sodium fluoride 0.05%); or CHX-CPC-Zn (CHX 0.05% plus cetylpyridinium chloride 0.05% plus zinc lactate 0.14%).

After 12 days, morning breath was scored via volatile sulfur compound (VSC) level measurements of the mouth air and organoleptic ratings of the mouth air, the expired air, and a scraping of the tongue coating. At the 12-day visit, a questionnaire (subjective ratings) was completed and samples taken from both the tongue coating and the saliva for anaerobic and aerobic culturing and vitality staining. The de novo supragingival plaque formation was also recorded. All parameters were correlated with the baseline registrations.

RESULTS: Although oral hygiene during the 3 experimental periods was limited to oral rinses, bad breath parameters systematically improved, with the exception of a slight increase in VSC levels while using CHX-Alc, a finding which was associated with the direct influence of the CHX on the sulfide monitor. The oral microbial load after the use of CHX-NaF remained unchanged, while for the CHX-Alc and CHX-CPC-Zn, significant reductions in both aerobic and anaerobic colony forming units (CFU)/ml were noticed in comparison with baseline data for both tongue coating and saliva samples. The composition of microflora, on the other hand, did not reveal significant changes. The supragingival plaque formation was inhibited, in descending order, by CHX-Alc, CHX-CPC-Zn, and CHX-NaF. The subjective scores for the rinses indicated a higher appreciation for CHX-CPC-Alc and CHX-NaF because of a better taste and fewer side effects. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that morning halitosis can be successfully reduced via daily use of mouthrinses. CHX-Alc and CHX-CPC-Zn mouthrinses result in a significant reduction of the microbial load of tongue and saliva.

Publication Types:
· Clinical Trial
· Randomized Controlled Trial


PMID: 11577950 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

J Clin Periodontol 1996 May;23(5):465-70

The effect of mouth rinses containing zinc and triclosan on plaque accumulation, development of gingivitis and formation of calculus in a 28-week clinical test.

by Schaeken MJ, Van der Hoeven JS, Saxton CA, Cummins D.

Department of Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, University of Nijmegan, The Netherlands.

Experimental mouthrinses containing 0.4% zinc sulphate and 0.15% triclosan, which differed in base formulations were compared to a commercially available non-active control mouthrinse. Following baseline clinical examinations for plaque, gingival bleeding and calculus, the volunteers were provided with a dental prophylaxis and given oral hygiene instruction, stratified into 3 groups and given 1 of 3 mouthrinses.

Further clinical assessments were performed after 4, 16 and 28 weeks. Salivary mutans streptococci were also monitored during the study. At 4 weeks, plaque and calculus scores in all groups were low compared to baseline. During the remainder of the study, these improvements were not maintained and both plaque and calculus levels increased in all groups. Plaque was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in the control at all time points. Calculus was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in the control at all time points. Calculus was significantly lower at week 28 for experimental mouthrinse group 2. Gingival bleeding also decreased in the initial 4 weeks but increased thereafter in the control group. In contrast, gingival bleeding was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the two experimental groups than in the control group. No significant changes in mutans streptococci were observed.


Ann Pharmacother 1996 Feb;30(2):186-7
Zinc Deficiency and Taste Disorders.

by Heyneman CA.

Idaho Drug Information Center, Idaho State University, Pocatello 83209, USA.

Elemental zinc supplementation in daily dosages of 25-100 mg po appears to be an efficacious treatment for taste dysfunction secondary to zinc depletion. Insufficient evidence is available to determine the efficacy of zinc supplementation for the treatment of hypogeusia or dysgeusia secondary to drug therapy or medical conditions that do not involve low serum zinc concentrations.


Ther Umsch 1995 Nov;52(11):732-7

[Article in German] Huttenbrink KB.

Klinik und Poliklinik fur Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde der Medizinischen Fakultat Carl Gustav Carus, Technischen Universitat Dresden.

Disorders of olfaction and taste are infrequent, but a complete loss of smell or taste reduces the quality of life significantly. The sensitivity of human olfaction is remarkable, even for specific stimuli: Just a few molecules are enough to induce the correct identification of sterilised and ultraheated milk.

Olfaction and taste are called ‘chemical senses’ because in both cases the adequate stimulus consists of molecules that bind to receptors of the sensory cells. The perceptions of smell and taste are often combined. Taste differentiates only four qualities: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. The typical flavor of food or drink is detected by olfaction. Disturbances of olfaction can be due to respiratory disorders such as nasal polyps, a deviation of the nasal septum or chronic sinusitis. Such conditions can reduce airflow through the olfactory cleft at the roof of the nasal cavity. They can be corrected by modern endoscopic surgery of the nose.

Epithelial disorders involving the sensory cells are most often caused by viral infections (influenza-anosmia) or toxic destruction of the sensory epithelium (solvents or gases). Epithelial disorders can be cured only rarely by any treatment. Corticosteroids, zinc, and vitamin A are tried frequently. Neural disorders occur after frontobasal trauma and during neurological diseases such as Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s disease. Disorders of olfaction can be an early sign of such neurological diseases and sophisticated examination of this sense can contribute to their early diagnosis. However, no specific treatments have yet been identified. Disorders of taste can be due to toxic, chemical or inflammatory damage to the sensory cells of the tongue.


Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1993 Oct;37(4):318-22

Zinc Taste Test in Pregnant Women and its Correlation with Serum Zinc Level.

by Garg HK, Singal KC, Arshad Z.

Department of Pharmacology, J. N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aligarh.

Pregnant women in different trimesters of pregnancy were divided into control (n = 58) and study (n = 104) groups. Study group subjects were given 45 mg zinc/p.o./day as 200 mg ‘zinc sulphate tablets from the day of reporting till term. Body zinc status was clinically assessed by ‘zinc taste test’. Blood samples were drawn at the same time and serum zinc levels measured. Zinc taste test scores decreased with advancement of pregnancy (P < 0.05) and increased significantly following zinc administration (P < 0.05).

Serum zinc level declined significantly with advancement of pregnancy (P < 0.001). Following zinc administration, serum zinc level increased significantly (P < 0.001). Accuracy of zinc taste test in individual cases ranged between 70 and 100 percent. On the whole, zinc taste test was well correlated with serum zinc level, and provides a fair idea of zinc deficiency.


Nutrition 1993 May-Jun;9(3):218-24

Zinc deficiency in elderly patients.

by AS, Fitzgerald JT, Hess JW, Kaplan J, Pelen F, Dardenne M. – Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI.

Zinc is needed for growth and development, DNA synthesis, neurosensory functions, and cell-mediated immunity. Although zinc intake is reduced in elderly people, its deficiency and effects on cell-mediated immunity of the elderly have not been established. Subjects enrolled in “A Model Health Promotion and Intervention Program for Urban Middle Aged and Elderly Americans” were assessed for nutrition and zinc status. One hundred eighty healthy subjects were randomly selected for the study. Their mean dietary zinc intake was 9.06 mg/day, whereas the recommended dietary allowance is 15 mg/day. Plasma zinc was normal, but zinc in granulocytes and lymphocytes were decreased compared with younger control subjects. Of 118 elderly subjects in whom zinc levels in both granulocytes and lymphocytes were available, 36 had deficient levels.

Plasma copper was increased, and interleukin 1 (IL-1) production was significantly decreased. Reduced response to the skin-test antigen panel and decreased taste acuity were observed. Thirteen elderly zinc-deficient subjects were supplemented with zinc, and various variables were assessed before and after zinc supplementation. Zinc supplementation corrected zinc deficiency and normalized plasma copper levels. Serum thymulin activity, IL-1 production, and lymphocyte ecto-5′-nucleotidase increased significantly after supplementation. Improvement in response to skin-test antigens and taste acuity was observed after zinc supplementation. A mild zinc deficiency appears to be a significant clinical problem in free-living elderly people.


Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1991 May;117(5):519-28

Smell and taste disorders, a study of 750 patients from the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center.

Deems DA, Doty RL, Settle RG, Moore-Gillon V, Shaman P, Mester AF, Kimmelman CP, Brightman VJ, Snow JB Jr. – Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Human Communication, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Smell and taste disorders are common in the general population, yet little is known about their nature or cause. This article describes a study of 750 patients with complaints of abnormal smell or taste perception from the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center, Philadelphia. Major findings suggest that: chemosensory dysfunction influences quality of life; complaints of taste loss usually reflect loss of smell function; upper respiratory infection, head trauma, and chronic nasal and paranasal sinus disease are the most common causes of the diminution of the sense of smell, with head trauma having the greatest loss; depression frequently accompanies chemosensory distortion; low body weight accompanies burning mouth syndrome; estrogens protect against loss of the sense of smell in postmenopausal women; zinc therapy may provide no benefit to patients with chemosensory dysfunction; and thyroid hormone function is associated with oral sensory distortion. The findings are discussed in relation to management of patients with chemosensory disturbances.


J Periodontol 1990 Jun;61(6):352-8

Clinical efficacy of a dentifrice and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract and zinc chloride during 6 months of use.

Harper DS, Mueller LJ, Fine JB, Gordon J, Laster LL. – Fairleigh-Dickinson University, Oral Health Research Center, Hackensack, NJ.

The efficacy of combined use of toothpaste and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract and zinc chloride was compared to placebo products in a 6-month clinical trial. Sixty subjects with moderate levels of plaque and gingivitis were randomly assigned to active and placebo groups. Noninvasive measures of plaque and gingivitis were assessed at baseline and at 2, 6, 8, 14, 20, and 28 weeks. Bleeding on probing was measured at baseline and 6, 14, and 28 weeks. Active group scores were significantly lower (P less than .0001) than placebo scores at each post-baseline time point for all indices, with the exception of plaque at 2 weeks. The 28 week active group scores were 21% lower than the placebo group for plaque, 25% lower for gingivitis, and 43% lower for bleeding on probing. No dental staining or taste alteration was reported in the active group. Three of 30 active group subjects exhibited minor soft tissue irritations that resolved spontaneously without discontinuation of product use. Results indicate that the test products showed good levels of safety and efficacy when administered in a combined use regimen for 6 months.


Clin Prev Dent 1990 Apr-May;12(1):13-7

Clinical evaluation of anticalculus dentifrices.

Kazmierczak M, Mather M, Ciancio S, Fischman S, Cancro L.

One hundred and eighty-seven patients participated in a six-month study to evaluate the calculus-inhibiting effect of a zinc citrate dentifrice compared to Crest Tartar Control and a placebo, Crest Regular. The findings demonstrate a statistically significant calculus prevention benefit over Crest Regular for both Crest Tartar Control and a 2% zinc citrate/silica product. Compared to the control, the zinc citrate product reduced calculus formation by 32.3%, and Crest Tartar Control reduced it by 21.4%. These findings also demonstrate no statistically significant difference in stain or soft tissue status among the three dentifrices. All products were found to be safe to oral tissues and acceptable for taste.

J La State Med Soc 1989 Sep;141(9):9-11

Disorders of taste.

Rareshide E, Amedee RG.

At least 2 million Americans suffer with chemosensory dysfunction or disorders of taste and smell. In addition to the obvious aesthetic deprivation, loss of taste may affect an individual’s health and psychosocial situation. Most taste disorders are associated with antecedent upper respiratory infection, trauma, or allergic rhinitis, or have an idiopathic etiology. They may reflect underlying neoplastic, neurologic, endocrine, infectious, or nutritional disturbances; only 1% of these patients have a functional disorder. Evaluation consists of a history and physical, followed by a screening test battery searching for any of the treatable etiologies. One third of patients will respond to exogenous zinc therapy after a treatment period of 2 to 4 months. The remainder must rely on supportive measures such as additives, flavor enhancers, and rinses.

No Comments Yet »