Archive for the ‘Tongue Scraper’ Category

Tyra Banks Has Morning Breath and Clay Aiken Has Fresh Breath!

Friday, September 4th, 2009

Tyra Banks admitted herself that she has a problem with morning breath on her show, The Tyra Banks Show.  Although she flosses, brushes with an electric toothbrush, uses a “strong cinnamon flavored” mouthwash and a tongue scraper, she still says she has bad breath in the morning.  She also discussed tongue scrapers and how they help get extra bacteria out of one’s mouth.

Tyra also mentioned that someone who has very fresh-smelling breath is Clay Aiken.  His “good breath” is one of the reasons that Tyra had one of her most fun interviews on the show with him.

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‘Bad Breath and Sinus’ Frequently Asked Questions

Monday, June 8th, 2009

Whenever I have post nasal drip, my breath gets worse. Does this mean bad breath comes from the sinuses?

No. That’s because the anaerobic sulfur-producing bacteria that create bad breath live and breed within the back of the tongue and in the throat. They have the ability to digest mucus (because of high protein content) & then break it down into sulfide molecules, which cause the bad breath & bitter, sour taste. The correct way to fight bad breath due to post nasal drip is to use a combination of nasal/sinus drops and oxygenation tablets, creating an oxygenating solution to cleanse the throat and tonsil area.

Can I still use my regular toothpaste and mouthwash if I use TheraBreath? 

No. Almost all commercial toothpaste’s contain sodium lauryl sulfate (SOAP), placed in toothpaste in order to create a foaming action, so that you think that something is actually happening. It has no beneficial effects at all. Unfortunately it will also inhibit the potency of the active ingredients. That is why those who use Oxyfresh toothpaste should read the ingredients in their toothpaste: It contains sodium lauryl sulfate! This will negate the benefits of the oxidation process.

Once in a while I get these small white round dots that appear on my tonsils, and sometimes I even cough them up. They have an extremely strong odor. What are they and is this related to my breath and taste disorder?  

Those little round globules are known as tonsilloliths and they are most definitely related to halitosis and sour taste. They are created by sulfur gases produced by these bacteria (which are located across from the tonsils in the throat area). The sulfur gas mixes with the mucus and thick saliva in the back of your throat and after a period of time, condense into these concentrated, odorous globs. They are only present when one has tonsils, but not in all cases.

I have had many patients who have actually had their tonsils removed due to misinformation from physicians about this problem. Of course, these patients still had bad breath after having the tonsillectomy, because bad breath does not start in the tonsils, only on the back of the tongue! However, it can branch off into the tonsils.

Important: To reduce halitosis (if you have tonsilloliths) here’s what my patients tell me they have done to solve this problem:

Swallow 1-2 capfuls of the solution created with the AktivOxigen tablets, before bedtime.  Generally, you will feel that the odor and lousy taste are neutralized as the rinse solution passes the tonsil area.

I scrape my tongue all day, but yet I still have bad breath. My dentist gave me this huge tongue scraper and told me to use it daily because it might scrape off the bacteria. I gag just by looking at it. Is there any truth to this or is it just one of those fads? 

Now, that’s a good question! In my opinion, and based on helping tens of thousands of people who have suffered with bad breath, tongue scraping by itself is NOT the answer. In fact, I have seen dozens of cases in my clinics where people have just scraped too hard and for too long, resulting in damage..painful tongue, dry tongue, and burning tongue!

We prefer to use the tongue cleaner as an application device with a very gentle cleansing motion on the tongue from the back to the front. This helps to apply the TheraBreath gel below the tongue’s surface to where the bacteria actually live. The bacteria cannot live ON the tongue surface because they are anaerobes, meaning they can’t survive on the surface.

I don’t have bad breath or any taste problems, but I want to use the best toothpaste and mouthwash you have. Which products should I use? 

I would recommend the PerioTherapy of Oral Rinse and Toothpaste. It’s similar to the TheraBreath PLUS line, but focuses more on gum health, which is still the number one oral disease in the world – more of a problem than cavities by far! And because chronic gum disease can lead to other health problems, such as heart attacks, strokes, pneumonia, and birth problems for pregnant women, we highly recommend PerioTherapy products.

My boyfriend sometimes has bad breath. Is it possible for him to give it to me when we French kiss? 

Simply put: you can’t give bad breath to someone else. The bacteria that create this problem are actually good bacteria and are part of the normal oral flora (the mix of bacteria that you need to function properly). It’s possible that the bacteria in your boyfriend’s mouth (tongue, throat, tonsils) are reacting to his dry mouth, which could have been created by smoking, medication, or alcohol.

I can smell the bad breath coming from my nose when I exhale. What can I do about this? Am I imaging things? 

You are not imagining anything. There are odors that can be detected in some cases as they emanate from the nostrils. This type of odor is due to mucus in the nasal passage and its reaction to bacteria in the nostrils (not in the sinus). It may also be a by-product of the reaction between mucous, post nasal drip, or allergies in the area beyond the sinus (in the naso-pharyngeal area and the throat/tonsil area). The solution is quite simple – TheraBreath Nasal Sinus Drops are the only oxygenating/zinc formula to attack this type of problem.

Is there any way I can whiten my teeth and get rid of bad breath at the same time? I don’t have the time to use dozens of different products several times a day. 

Actually, our TheraBrite toothpaste is BOTH a whitening toothpaste AND a breath toothpaste. Just use it in conjunction with any of our oxygenating rinses – TheraBreath, AktivOxigen, TheraBreath PLUS, and PerioTherapy – All of our products are designed to work together.

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Fit: Every Breath You Take – Dr. Katz in Columbus, Ohio

Thursday, September 27th, 2007

Dr. Katz, who is on a nationwide “bad breath mission tour” gets down to the basics of bad breath with Vicky Hallett of Read Express.

IF YOU’RE LOOKING for someone to kiss, try the streets of Columbus, Ohio. That’s what dentist-bacteriologist Harold Katz says, anyway. Armed with a device called a Halimeter, the author of “The Bad Breath Bible” is touring the nation to give out gold stars or break the news that, yes, that odor is completely offensive. The current standings have the Midwestern city as the country’s fresh-breath front-runner. To prepare our city for his impending arrival (although the date isn’t scheduled yet), Katz has some tips on making mouths more fragrant.

» EXPRESS: Are people aware of how stinky their breath is?
» KATZ: No, people don’t know they have bad breath. Their brains get used to their odors.

» EXPRESS: So, what causes bad breath?
» KATZ: A dry mouth is the number one cause. People don’t drink enough water to replenish their saliva, and many mouthwashes are full of alcohol, which just dries mouths out more. The teeth have very little to do with it — it comes from bacteria in the back of the throat. The odor you smell in bad breath comes from anaerobic sulphur-producing bacteria, so it stays away from oxygen.

» EXPRESS: But can’t you scrape your tongue?
» KATZ: That does help somewhat, but people who use traditional toothpaste to do it are making their tongues dry, and you don’t want to keep the tongue dry.

» EXPRESS: Garlic can impact breath, but are any foods surprising?
» KATZ: We recommend that if you go to a party that you look for things that are juicy, like fruits. Dairy foods are a big problem because they contain proteins that can break down and smell.

» EXPRESS: Do breath mints help?
» KATZ: Not much, especially if it contains sugar. The way you grow bacteria in a lab is to give it sugar.

» EXPRESS: I hear you’ve worked with celebrities. Any good stories?
» KATZ: I can’t name names, but I treated a singer who had a lounge act. The people at the front tables would go to the back of the room. Also, smokers and drinkers end up with bad breath, so actors have major issues with kissing scenes.

» EXPRESS: How do you politely tell someone they have foul breath?
» KATZ: We have a tell-a-friend program [on the Web site Therabreath.com]. They’ll get an e-mail explaining what bad breath is all about. We’re not here to insult them.

» EXPRESS: Can bad breath be a sign of something more than dry mouth?
» KATZ: Quite often we talk about this as a funny thing, but there’s a strong link to illness when you have those high levels of sulphur. It means you’re susceptible to gum disease. Once gums are puffy and bleeding, that’s a chronic infection. There’s a higher incidence of heart attacks and strokes. Signs that things are out of balance could lead to serious consequences.

» EXPRESS: Any other breath-freshening tips for our readers?
» KATZ: Drinking a six-pack of beer is not the same as drinking water. And we highly recommend flossing. It’s one of these things people avoid, but in those crevices is where the bacteria are hiding from oxygen. Also, certain medications — anti-histamines, anti-depressants — can make the mouth dry. So, people who never had bad breath might get it with a new prescription.

» EXPRESS: I know you haven’t tested D.C. breath yet, but any thoughts on how politicians will do?
» KATZ: People who talk a lot use up their saliva, and their breath starts to become offensive. So, if they want to get votes, they should drink plenty of water on the campaign trail.

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Do You Have a White Tongue or Geographic Tongue? Discover How To Correctly Clean Your Tongue to Make White Tongue Disappear!

Monday, September 10th, 2007
A White Tongue is something that nobody wants to have – not only does a white tongue look abnormal, but left untreated, it’s a strong indication of a breath problem. People who have a condition known as geographic tongue are definitely more likely to experience a white tongue. Geographic Tongue simply means a tongue that has lots of grooves and fissures in it – these grooves and fissures make an excellent breeding ground for the anaerobic bacteria that cause bad breath and a white tongue. The way around this problem is simply making sure that your tongue is kept as clean as possible. But not all tongue cleaning is created equal….Tongue Cleaning (or Tongue Scraping) is a process that the majority of people in the United States don’t do on a daily basis. Yet it’s one of the most important steps you can take to keep your breath clean and fresh.It’s not difficult to do, and it’s not even that particularly time consuming. Yet that extra minute or two per day can reap huge rewards in preventing bad breath, and helping to prevent white tongue and return it to its normal color.A healthy tongue should be slightly moist, smooth, and slightly pinkish in color (see image below left).Under certain conditions, a geographic tongue can become coated, off-color (white, yellow, even black), and dry and cracked (see images below right).

HEALTHY TONGUE: UNHEALTHY, DRY, COATED TONGUES:
 
  Healthy Tongue   White Tongue   Geographic Tongue   Coated Tongue

Let me clarify a few things about tongue cleaning:

 
  1. It’s not necessary to scrape hard
    I’ve seen patients make their tongues bleed because they were pressing down so hard. In general, pressing harder does not remove more bacteria. You simply need to press hard enough so that the tongue cleaner contacts your tongue, flush across the cleaning surface. Try not to leave any gaps.
  2. Tongue Cleaning Alone Does Not Prevent Bad Breath
    Tongue Cleaning does not kill the bacteria that cause bad breath that are breeding below the surface of a geographic tongue. It simply removes the gunk on the surface of your tongue (mucus and food debris) which are a food source for those anaerobic bacteria. In order to get rid of those anaerobic bacteria (which are responsible for white tongue), you must use an oxygenating toothpaste which can penetrate beneath your tongues surface.
  3. It’s not necessary to use one of those complex, expensive gizmos to successfully clean your tongue
    Really, all your need is a fairly rigid instrument, that you can easily make flush with the largest amount possible of your tongues surface area. The electronic tongue cleaners you see can be helpful if you have arthritis, difficulty with coordination, or in general have a tough time performing the actions listed below.
  Recommended Tongue Cleaners:Triple Headed Plastic Tongue Cleaner

 

Step-By-Step Instructions to Successfully Clean A Geographic Tongue and Prevent White Tongue

 
Here is an average tongue cleaning from start to finish from one of my patients who volunteered to allow me to take his picture.

  1. Starting at the very base of your tongue, place the tongue cleaner flush against your tongues surface and make slow sweeping strokes from back-to-front. Start at either side (left or right) and work your way to the other. Depending on the tongue cleaner you are using, you might need to make 3-4 different ‘swaths’ across your tongue.
  2. Once the surface debris from your tongue has been removed, apply a small bead of TheraBreath Oxygenating Toothpaste to the head of your tongue cleaner
  3. Gently coat the suraface of your tongue (as far back as possible without gagging) with the toothpaste. This allows it to penetrate below the surface of your tongue to neutralize those sulfur-producing anaerobic bacteria! There are more bacteria in the rear of your tongue than in the front.
  4. Once your tongue is coated, allow the toothpaste to stay on the surface of your tongue as long as you can. Up to 90 seconds is ideal. If you begin to cough, or your gag reflex kicks in, that’s ok, just spit whenever you need to.
  5. Ideally, it’s best to leave the toothpaste on the surface of your tongue, while you brush your teeth normally.
  White TongueApply TheraBreath ToothpasteGently Scrape TongueHealthy Tongue
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Zinc in TheraBreath PLUS Mouthwash

Monday, September 10th, 2007

Zinc in TheraBreath PLUS Mouthwash

The scientific studies which follow will help explain why TheraBreath PLUS Oral Rinse, in addition to a higher concentration of OXYD-8, also contains Zinc Gluconate. Briefly, science has shown that adding zinc gluconate helps to eliminate sour/bitter/metallic tastes and also aids in reducing tartar buildup. The stabilized chlorine dioxide component (OXYD-8) in TheraBreath PLUS Oral Rinse is utilized to eliminate oral malodor, while Tea Tree Oil assists as a natural anti-microbial.


Biofactors 2000;12(1-4):65-70

Zinc deficiency and taste dysfunction; contribution of carbonic anhydrase, a zinc-metalloenzyme, to normal taste sensation.

by Komai M, Goto T, Suzuki H, Takeda T, Furukawa Y.

Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. mkomai@biochem.tohoku.ac.jp

The present study was designed to clarify the effect of zinc deficiency on sodium chloride preference, the lingual trigeminal and taste nerves transduction, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity of the tongue surface and salivary gland. Male SD rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into four groups, and fed zinc-deficient (Zn-Def), low-zinc (Low-Zn), and zinc-sufficient diets with free access (Zn-Suf) and pair-feeding (Pair-fed). After taking part in the preference tests for 42 days, the rats were provided for the chorda tympani and lingual trigeminal nerves recordings, then finally sacrificed and the tongue and submandibular gland excised to measure CA activity. Sodium chloride preference increased only after 4 days of the feeding of zinc-deficient and low-zinc diets, which means that the taste abnormality appears abruptly in zinc deficieny and even though in marginal zinc deficiency. Reduced CA activities of the taste-related tissues in zinc-deficient group paralleled well with the decreased taste and lingual trigeminal nerves sensitivities.


Effect of Different Mouthrinses on Morning Breath.

by van Steenberghe D, Avontroodt P, Peeters W, Pauwels M, Coucke W, Lijnen A, Quirynen M.

Department of Periodontology, Oral Pathology and Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.

BACKGROUND: Morning breath odor is an often-encountered complaint. This double-blind, crossover, randomized study aimed to examine the bad breath-inhibiting effect of 3 commercially available mouthrinses on morning halitosis during an experimental period of 12 days without mechanical plaque control.

METHODS: Twelve medical students with a healthy periodontium refrained from all means of mechanical plaque control during 3 experimental periods of 12 days (with intervening washout periods of at least 3 weeks). A professional oral cleaning preceded each period. During each experimental period, as the only oral hygiene measure allowed, the students rinsed twice a day with one of the following formulations in a randomized order: CHX-Alc (a 0.2% chlorhexidine [CHX] solution); CHX-NaF (CHX 0.12% plus sodium fluoride 0.05%); or CHX-CPC-Zn (CHX 0.05% plus cetylpyridinium chloride 0.05% plus zinc lactate 0.14%).

After 12 days, morning breath was scored via volatile sulfur compound (VSC) level measurements of the mouth air and organoleptic ratings of the mouth air, the expired air, and a scraping of the tongue coating. At the 12-day visit, a questionnaire (subjective ratings) was completed and samples taken from both the tongue coating and the saliva for anaerobic and aerobic culturing and vitality staining. The de novo supragingival plaque formation was also recorded. All parameters were correlated with the baseline registrations.

RESULTS: Although oral hygiene during the 3 experimental periods was limited to oral rinses, bad breath parameters systematically improved, with the exception of a slight increase in VSC levels while using CHX-Alc, a finding which was associated with the direct influence of the CHX on the sulfide monitor. The oral microbial load after the use of CHX-NaF remained unchanged, while for the CHX-Alc and CHX-CPC-Zn, significant reductions in both aerobic and anaerobic colony forming units (CFU)/ml were noticed in comparison with baseline data for both tongue coating and saliva samples. The composition of microflora, on the other hand, did not reveal significant changes. The supragingival plaque formation was inhibited, in descending order, by CHX-Alc, CHX-CPC-Zn, and CHX-NaF. The subjective scores for the rinses indicated a higher appreciation for CHX-CPC-Alc and CHX-NaF because of a better taste and fewer side effects. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that morning halitosis can be successfully reduced via daily use of mouthrinses. CHX-Alc and CHX-CPC-Zn mouthrinses result in a significant reduction of the microbial load of tongue and saliva.

Publication Types:
· Clinical Trial
· Randomized Controlled Trial


PMID: 11577950 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

J Clin Periodontol 1996 May;23(5):465-70

The effect of mouth rinses containing zinc and triclosan on plaque accumulation, development of gingivitis and formation of calculus in a 28-week clinical test.

by Schaeken MJ, Van der Hoeven JS, Saxton CA, Cummins D.

Department of Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, University of Nijmegan, The Netherlands.

Experimental mouthrinses containing 0.4% zinc sulphate and 0.15% triclosan, which differed in base formulations were compared to a commercially available non-active control mouthrinse. Following baseline clinical examinations for plaque, gingival bleeding and calculus, the volunteers were provided with a dental prophylaxis and given oral hygiene instruction, stratified into 3 groups and given 1 of 3 mouthrinses.

Further clinical assessments were performed after 4, 16 and 28 weeks. Salivary mutans streptococci were also monitored during the study. At 4 weeks, plaque and calculus scores in all groups were low compared to baseline. During the remainder of the study, these improvements were not maintained and both plaque and calculus levels increased in all groups. Plaque was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in the control at all time points. Calculus was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in the control at all time points. Calculus was significantly lower at week 28 for experimental mouthrinse group 2. Gingival bleeding also decreased in the initial 4 weeks but increased thereafter in the control group. In contrast, gingival bleeding was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the two experimental groups than in the control group. No significant changes in mutans streptococci were observed.


Ann Pharmacother 1996 Feb;30(2):186-7
Zinc Deficiency and Taste Disorders.

by Heyneman CA.

Idaho Drug Information Center, Idaho State University, Pocatello 83209, USA.

Elemental zinc supplementation in daily dosages of 25-100 mg po appears to be an efficacious treatment for taste dysfunction secondary to zinc depletion. Insufficient evidence is available to determine the efficacy of zinc supplementation for the treatment of hypogeusia or dysgeusia secondary to drug therapy or medical conditions that do not involve low serum zinc concentrations.


Ther Umsch 1995 Nov;52(11):732-7

[Article in German] Huttenbrink KB.

Klinik und Poliklinik fur Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde der Medizinischen Fakultat Carl Gustav Carus, Technischen Universitat Dresden.

Disorders of olfaction and taste are infrequent, but a complete loss of smell or taste reduces the quality of life significantly. The sensitivity of human olfaction is remarkable, even for specific stimuli: Just a few molecules are enough to induce the correct identification of sterilised and ultraheated milk.

Olfaction and taste are called ‘chemical senses’ because in both cases the adequate stimulus consists of molecules that bind to receptors of the sensory cells. The perceptions of smell and taste are often combined. Taste differentiates only four qualities: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. The typical flavor of food or drink is detected by olfaction. Disturbances of olfaction can be due to respiratory disorders such as nasal polyps, a deviation of the nasal septum or chronic sinusitis. Such conditions can reduce airflow through the olfactory cleft at the roof of the nasal cavity. They can be corrected by modern endoscopic surgery of the nose.

Epithelial disorders involving the sensory cells are most often caused by viral infections (influenza-anosmia) or toxic destruction of the sensory epithelium (solvents or gases). Epithelial disorders can be cured only rarely by any treatment. Corticosteroids, zinc, and vitamin A are tried frequently. Neural disorders occur after frontobasal trauma and during neurological diseases such as Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s disease. Disorders of olfaction can be an early sign of such neurological diseases and sophisticated examination of this sense can contribute to their early diagnosis. However, no specific treatments have yet been identified. Disorders of taste can be due to toxic, chemical or inflammatory damage to the sensory cells of the tongue.


Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1993 Oct;37(4):318-22

Zinc Taste Test in Pregnant Women and its Correlation with Serum Zinc Level.

by Garg HK, Singal KC, Arshad Z.

Department of Pharmacology, J. N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aligarh.

Pregnant women in different trimesters of pregnancy were divided into control (n = 58) and study (n = 104) groups. Study group subjects were given 45 mg zinc/p.o./day as 200 mg ‘zinc sulphate tablets from the day of reporting till term. Body zinc status was clinically assessed by ‘zinc taste test’. Blood samples were drawn at the same time and serum zinc levels measured. Zinc taste test scores decreased with advancement of pregnancy (P < 0.05) and increased significantly following zinc administration (P < 0.05).

Serum zinc level declined significantly with advancement of pregnancy (P < 0.001). Following zinc administration, serum zinc level increased significantly (P < 0.001). Accuracy of zinc taste test in individual cases ranged between 70 and 100 percent. On the whole, zinc taste test was well correlated with serum zinc level, and provides a fair idea of zinc deficiency.


Nutrition 1993 May-Jun;9(3):218-24

Zinc deficiency in elderly patients.

by AS, Fitzgerald JT, Hess JW, Kaplan J, Pelen F, Dardenne M. – Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI.

Zinc is needed for growth and development, DNA synthesis, neurosensory functions, and cell-mediated immunity. Although zinc intake is reduced in elderly people, its deficiency and effects on cell-mediated immunity of the elderly have not been established. Subjects enrolled in “A Model Health Promotion and Intervention Program for Urban Middle Aged and Elderly Americans” were assessed for nutrition and zinc status. One hundred eighty healthy subjects were randomly selected for the study. Their mean dietary zinc intake was 9.06 mg/day, whereas the recommended dietary allowance is 15 mg/day. Plasma zinc was normal, but zinc in granulocytes and lymphocytes were decreased compared with younger control subjects. Of 118 elderly subjects in whom zinc levels in both granulocytes and lymphocytes were available, 36 had deficient levels.

Plasma copper was increased, and interleukin 1 (IL-1) production was significantly decreased. Reduced response to the skin-test antigen panel and decreased taste acuity were observed. Thirteen elderly zinc-deficient subjects were supplemented with zinc, and various variables were assessed before and after zinc supplementation. Zinc supplementation corrected zinc deficiency and normalized plasma copper levels. Serum thymulin activity, IL-1 production, and lymphocyte ecto-5′-nucleotidase increased significantly after supplementation. Improvement in response to skin-test antigens and taste acuity was observed after zinc supplementation. A mild zinc deficiency appears to be a significant clinical problem in free-living elderly people.


Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1991 May;117(5):519-28

Smell and taste disorders, a study of 750 patients from the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center.

Deems DA, Doty RL, Settle RG, Moore-Gillon V, Shaman P, Mester AF, Kimmelman CP, Brightman VJ, Snow JB Jr. – Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Human Communication, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Smell and taste disorders are common in the general population, yet little is known about their nature or cause. This article describes a study of 750 patients with complaints of abnormal smell or taste perception from the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center, Philadelphia. Major findings suggest that: chemosensory dysfunction influences quality of life; complaints of taste loss usually reflect loss of smell function; upper respiratory infection, head trauma, and chronic nasal and paranasal sinus disease are the most common causes of the diminution of the sense of smell, with head trauma having the greatest loss; depression frequently accompanies chemosensory distortion; low body weight accompanies burning mouth syndrome; estrogens protect against loss of the sense of smell in postmenopausal women; zinc therapy may provide no benefit to patients with chemosensory dysfunction; and thyroid hormone function is associated with oral sensory distortion. The findings are discussed in relation to management of patients with chemosensory disturbances.


J Periodontol 1990 Jun;61(6):352-8

Clinical efficacy of a dentifrice and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract and zinc chloride during 6 months of use.

Harper DS, Mueller LJ, Fine JB, Gordon J, Laster LL. – Fairleigh-Dickinson University, Oral Health Research Center, Hackensack, NJ.

The efficacy of combined use of toothpaste and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract and zinc chloride was compared to placebo products in a 6-month clinical trial. Sixty subjects with moderate levels of plaque and gingivitis were randomly assigned to active and placebo groups. Noninvasive measures of plaque and gingivitis were assessed at baseline and at 2, 6, 8, 14, 20, and 28 weeks. Bleeding on probing was measured at baseline and 6, 14, and 28 weeks. Active group scores were significantly lower (P less than .0001) than placebo scores at each post-baseline time point for all indices, with the exception of plaque at 2 weeks. The 28 week active group scores were 21% lower than the placebo group for plaque, 25% lower for gingivitis, and 43% lower for bleeding on probing. No dental staining or taste alteration was reported in the active group. Three of 30 active group subjects exhibited minor soft tissue irritations that resolved spontaneously without discontinuation of product use. Results indicate that the test products showed good levels of safety and efficacy when administered in a combined use regimen for 6 months.


Clin Prev Dent 1990 Apr-May;12(1):13-7

Clinical evaluation of anticalculus dentifrices.

Kazmierczak M, Mather M, Ciancio S, Fischman S, Cancro L.

One hundred and eighty-seven patients participated in a six-month study to evaluate the calculus-inhibiting effect of a zinc citrate dentifrice compared to Crest Tartar Control and a placebo, Crest Regular. The findings demonstrate a statistically significant calculus prevention benefit over Crest Regular for both Crest Tartar Control and a 2% zinc citrate/silica product. Compared to the control, the zinc citrate product reduced calculus formation by 32.3%, and Crest Tartar Control reduced it by 21.4%. These findings also demonstrate no statistically significant difference in stain or soft tissue status among the three dentifrices. All products were found to be safe to oral tissues and acceptable for taste.

J La State Med Soc 1989 Sep;141(9):9-11

Disorders of taste.

Rareshide E, Amedee RG.

At least 2 million Americans suffer with chemosensory dysfunction or disorders of taste and smell. In addition to the obvious aesthetic deprivation, loss of taste may affect an individual’s health and psychosocial situation. Most taste disorders are associated with antecedent upper respiratory infection, trauma, or allergic rhinitis, or have an idiopathic etiology. They may reflect underlying neoplastic, neurologic, endocrine, infectious, or nutritional disturbances; only 1% of these patients have a functional disorder. Evaluation consists of a history and physical, followed by a screening test battery searching for any of the treatable etiologies. One third of patients will respond to exogenous zinc therapy after a treatment period of 2 to 4 months. The remainder must rely on supportive measures such as additives, flavor enhancers, and rinses.

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